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Holidays and festivals

Zařazeno: iReferaty.cz > Referáty > Maturitní otázky > Maturitní otázky z angličtiny > Holidays and festivals
 
Titulek: Holidays and festivals
Datum vložení: 21.9.2013
Referát vložil: jajad

 

HOLIDAYS AND FESTIVALS
UNITED KINGDOM
 More conservative
 Proud of isles – give them security
 Fond of pets, children, mania for tea
New Year’s Day – 1st January
 People take shower in the fountains of Trafalgar Square
 Titles and decorations are conferred by the sovereign
 New Year’s resolutions
 Celebrating
 Superstitions
→ eating lens or pork brings money and welfare
→ braking the glass means bad luck in the following years
St.Valentine’s Day – 14th Feebruary
 Also called Lover’sday, Sweat-heart’s day
 Commemorates the Roman priest who hgave aid and comfort to persecuted Christians before he was put to death
 Valentines cards are sent by young people anonymous which might be serious or funny
All Fools day – 1st April
 Custom of playing jokes and tricks on people than shout out April Fool
Easter – April
 Feast of the Christian church
 Pre-christian tradition = intention to celebrate the spring equinox
 Good Friday = Jesus crucifixion
 Easter Sunday = resurrection of Jesus
 Easter eggs are being dyed and decorated and given to children as a symbol of new life
 Celebrated on Sunday
Pancake day – last day before lent
 Also called Shrove Tuesday
 It is the day peceding Ash Wednesday (the first day o fland)
 It was traditionally a day to make pancakes and use up all the butter and eggs that would not be allowed during lent.
Mother’s Day – 1st Sunday in lent
 Also called Mothering Sunday
 Honours all mothers
May day – 1st Monday of May
 It is currently celebrated as a festival of children
→ children will usually dance arend a garlanded pole, called a maypole, from which streamers hang, held by the dancers
Guy Fawkes day – 5th November
 Also called Bonfire Night
 Fireworks and bonfires on which effigies of Guy Fawkes are burnt celebrate Fawkes‘ failure to blow up the House of Parliament on November 4, 1605
Remembrance Day – 2nd Sunday in November
 It honours veterans
 Ceremony in the White hall in London
 2 minutes of silence for those killed in the WWII
 Red poppies are sold by the British Legion to raise money for veterans
Christmas – 24th December – 6th January
 It is celebration of the birth of Jesus Christ
 Christmas tree were symbols of the eternal life in pre-Christian times
 Mistletoe = Christams decoration, symbol of love and reconciliation
 Lighting candles = also pre-Christian roots
 Children write wish lists to Father Christmas and then tis throw letters into the fire
 Presents are given on Christas Day – 25th December
→ childern get up as early as possible in the mening to open thein gild, which were left there by Father Christmas the night before
 Boxing day – 26th December
o Traditionally, this is a day when the gentry would give presents, usually money, to servants, salespeople and others of modest life
→ this presents came to be known as Christmas boxes
 The Three Kings‘ Day – 6th January
o It is believed that the tree wise men, or magi, visited the baby Jesus on that day
USA
 Not conservative → Many ethnic groups = many differents traditions
 Most of the holidays = federal public holidays
Easter
 Not national holiday
 Dyed eggs, sweets
 Parents hide eggs and children look for them
 Easter Egg roll = in front of White house on Easter Monday
Memorial Day – last Monday in May
 Honours all Americans killed in past wars and all the dead
 Flowers and flags are placed on graves
Independence Day - 4th July
 Commemorates Declaration of Independence 1776 and establishing USA
 Concerts, fireworks, festive barbecue, picnics…
Columbus Day – 12th October
 Anniversary of discovery of the America by Christopher Columbus in 1492
Halloween – 31st October
 Christians celebrated it as the Eve of All Saints Day
 Connected with witches and ghosts
 Pumpkins with horrible faces = jack-o‘-lantern; many houses are decorates
 Children wear costumes, knock on the door and say: trick or treat
 Celts celebrated it as the last day of the year and the beginning of the winter
Thanksgiving – the last Thursday in November
 A feast of giving thanks to God
 Traditional Thanksgiving meal: roasted turkey, pumpkin cake
 Families are together
→ many Americans enjoy a four-day holiday to travel long distances to gather as a family
 1621 = 1st celebration – pilgrim settler of Plymouth Colony on thein 1st harvest
Christmas
 Exchanging gifts, cooking and rating traditional foods, putting up Christmas decorations
 Santa Claus, brightly decorated Christmas tree, plenty of weathes, holly, ribbons
 Presents are giving at 25th December at morning like in UK


KEY WORDS
acknowledge = uznat, dodržet
anniversary = výročí
apparent = patrný, zřejmý
Ash Wednesday = popeleční středa
bonfire = oheň, hranice, táborák
carol = koleda
celebrate = slavit
celebration = oslava
ceremony = obřad, ceremonie
Christian = křesťan, křesťanský
commemorate = slavit, připomínat
confection = sladkost
confer sth on sb = udělit
conspirator = spiklenec
conspire = spiknout see
contribute = přispět
controversial = sporný, kontroverzní
cranberry = brusinka
crucifixion = ukřižování
decorate = zdobit, vyzdobit
decoration = výzdoba
effigy = figurka, zdobení
enormous = obrovský
equinox = rovnodennost
event = událost
fanfare = fanfára
fireworks = ohňostroj
the gentry = nižší šlechta
garland = věnec, girlanda
goblin = skřítek
gunpowder = střelný prach
guy = panák; muž
hag = babizna
holly = cesmína
holy = svatý, posvátný
honour = ctít, poctít, vyznamenat
incorporate = začlenit
ivy = břečťan
jack-o‘-lantern = vydlabaná dýně se svíčkou
Lent = půst
makeshift = prozatímní, provizorní
mistletoe = jmelí
observe = zachovávat, dodržovat, pozorovat
occasion = příležitost, událost
parade = přehlídka
patron saint = patron, ochránce
plaited = spletený
plot = plán, spyknutí
precede = předcházet (v čase)
pumpkin = dýně
relate to = vztahovat se k čemu
religion = náboženství
religious = náboženský
remembrance = vzpomínka, památka
resurrection = znovuzrození, vzkříšení
revival = obnovení, obživnutí
revive = obnovit; oživit
ribbon = stuha
secular = světský
significant = významný
squash = ovocná štáva, squash (sport)
subsequent = následující (v čase)
sweets = sladkosti, cukroví
trefle toffee = karamela
trinket = malý šperk, drobnost
turnip = tuřín, brukev
willow = vrba
wreath = věnec


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